The Thames once supported important and valuable fisheries. Smelt were plentiful at Billingsgate up to 40 boats worked every day between Wandsworth and Hammersmith taking up to 50,000 of this fish. Shads, salmon, founder, eel and whitebait were also important.

Over a million lamperns were sold annually to Dutch fishermen for bait. The remains of Bronze Age and Saxon fish traps along the Thames illustrate the river’s long fishing history. Growing pollution and habitat loss combined to destroy fisheries in the early 19th century. By 1960,a mammoth scheme was started to extend London’s major sewerage treatment works and improve river water quality. The Greater London Council and Thames Water Authority carried through the 20-year project, which today would cost £300 million.
Today, the Thames clean-up campaign is internationally recognised as a success. The estuary now supports over 120 species of fish, is an important marine nursery ground and plays a major part in supporting North Sea stocks. There are recreational fisheries for a range of species, a commercial eel fishery below Tower Bridge and a fishery for sole below Mucking. Problems remain, however. In wet weather the sewers can overflow, discharging raw sewage into the estuary. This can happen 50–60 times a year, leaving sewage waste on the foreshore, killing fish, and harming wildlife.

We are working with the Government, Ofwat, Thames Water, businesses, local people and the Thames Estuary Partnership to tackle these problems.
The fish species found to date are listed below.

Click on the highlighted fish to find out more about them.

FRESHWATER: Barbel ; Bleak ; Bream; Bullhead ; Carp ; Crucian Carp ; Wels Catfish; Chub ; Dace ; Goldfish ; Greyling ; Gudgeon; Loach ; Minnow ; Perch; Pike ; Roach ; Rudd ; Ruff ; Tench ; Zander
HYBRID: Roach/Bream
BRACKISH: Bass ; Yellow Eel ; Silver Eel ; Flounder ; Lampern ; Lamprey ; Salmon ; Allis Shad ; Twaite Shad ; Smelt ; 3-Spine Stickleback ; 10-Spine Stickleback ; Brown Trout ; Rainbow Trout
MARINE: Anchovy; Angler Fish; Blue Mouth; Brill; Butterfish; Channel Catfish; Cod; Coalfish; Conger Eel; Dab; Dory; Dragonet; Eckstrom Topknot; Garfish; Black Goby; Common Goby; Leopard Spotted Goby; Painted Goby; Rock Goby;
Sand Goby; Transparent Goby; Goldsinny; Grey Gurnard; Red Gurnard; Streaked Gurnard; Tub Gurnard; Haddock; Hake; Herring; Ling; Lumpsucker; Mackerel; Golden Mullet; Grey Mullet ; Red Mullet; Thick-Lipped Mullet; Thin-Lipped Mullet; Norway Bullhead; Pilchard; Broad-Nosed Pipefish; Great Pipefish; Nilsson’s Pipefish; Snake Pipefish; Straight-nosed Pipefish; Worm Pipefish; Plaice; Pogge; Pollack; Poor-Cod; Pouting; Ray, Sting; 3-Bearded Rockling; 4-Bearded Rockling; 5-Bearded Rockling; Northern Rockling; Shore Rockling; Roker; Sand Eel; Greater Sand Eel; Raitt’s Sand Eel; Sand-Smelt; Scad; Scaldfish; Black Sea Bream; Sea Horse (H.hippocampus); Sea Horse (H.ramulosus); Long-Spinned Sea Scorpion; Short Spinned Sea Scorpion; Sea Snail; Montagu’s Sea Snail; Sea Stickleback; Sea Skipper; Smooth Hound; Dover Sole; Lemon Sole; Solenette; Sprat; Tadpole-Fish; Tompot Blenny; Trigger-Fish; Greater Weever; Lesser Weever; Whiting; Blue Whiting; Ballan Wrasse; Corkwing Wrasse

The majority of these fish were found during routine surveys by the Environment Agency and its predecessors. The Environment Agency has a statutory duty to maintain, improve and develop freshwater fisheries. In 1995, Thames Region acquired sea fisheries powers downstream to Mucking. These powers and duties are used to protect and promote all of the fish populations present in the estuary. Fisheries officers and biologists work with other organisations to survey the fish. This involves seine netting, kick sampling and beam trawling on six sites from Richmond to Grays. Otter trawling is used from Woolwich to Southend. Occasionally, rare species such as sea horses are found.